Methods for Estimating Risk of Chemical Injury:
Human and Non-human Biota and Ecosystems

Edited by

Velimir B. Vouk - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences,
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA

Gordon C. Butler - National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada

David G. Hoel - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park,
North Carolina, USA


David B. Peakall - National Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Canada

Prepared by
Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC)

Published on behalf of the
Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment (SCOPE)
of the
International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU)
and the
International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
of the World Health Organization (WHO),
the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
and the International Labour Organization (ILO)


John Wiley & Sons

Chichester, New York, Brisbane, Toronto, Singapore


Click on a chapter number to open pdf.

Title Pages
Table of Contents
Foreword by Frederick Warner
Foreword by Michael Mercier
Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals
Participants of the Workshop


1. Introduction, General Conclusions and Recommendations
2. Methods for Estimating Exposure to Chemicals
3. Methods for Quantitative Estimation of Risk from Exposure to Chemicals
4. Approaches to Measuring Chemical Injury in Non-human Biota and Ecosystems


Exposure Estimation - B.G. Bennett
Individual Exposure and Biological Monitoring - Jerzy K. Piotrowski
Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms in Carcinogenesis by Alkylating N-Nitroso Compounds: Pulse Carcinogenesis by N-Ethyl-N-Nitrosourea in the Developing Rat Brain as a Model System -
M.F. Rajewsky
Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Tumour Promotion and their Implications for Risk Assessment - Hiroshi Yamasaki and I. Bernard Weinstein
Implications for Risk Assessment of Genotoxic and Non-genotoxic Mechanisms in Carcinogenesis -
J.E. Trosko and C.C. Chang
Use of Quantitative Cell Transformation Assays in Risk Estimation - J. Carl Barrett and David G. Thomassen
Comparability of in vitro and in vivo Systems for Carcinogenesis Evaluations in Different Species, Tissues and Cells - Umberto Saffiotti
A Comparison of the Potency of the Mutagenic Effect of Chemicals in Short-term Tests with their Carcinogenic Effect in Rodent Carcinogenicity Experiments - I.F.H. Purchase
Laboratory Models in Carcinogenesis Based on Life-span Long-term Bioassays - Cesare Maltoni
The Comparative Potency Method: an Approach to Quantitative Cancer Risk Assessment -
Roy E. Albert
The Use of Epidemiological Data to Assess Human Cancer Risk - Bruce Armstrong
Epidemiological Studies to Estimate Effects of Low-level Exposures - Kenneth P. Cantor
Epidemiological Studies of Germ Cell Mutation in Human Populations with Particular Reference to Groups with Unusual Chemical Exposures - James V. Neel, Yukio Nishimoto, Kazuaki Goriki, Chiyoko Satoh, Mikio Fujita and Y. Yoshimoto
Chemicals: A Possible Cause of Genetic Disorders -N.P. Botkov and Yu. I. Kundiev
Mathematical Dose-Response Models and their Application to Risk Estimation - David G. Hoel
Some Problems in Dose-Response Estimation in Cancer Epidemiology - Julian Peto
Risk Estimation Models - N.E. Day
Methods for Quantitative Cancer Risk Estimation Currently Used in the USSR - N. Ya. Janyseva, I.A. Cernitenko and N.V. Balenko
Quantitative Approaches in Use in the United States to Assess Cancer Risk - Elizabeth L. Anderson
Quantitative Dose-Response Models in Prenatal Toxicology - Rolf Bass, Diether Neubert, Harry Stotzer and Gerd Bochert
Quantitative Effects of Chemicals on Fertility - Allen J. Wilcox
Risk Estimation Models Derived from Metabolic and Damage Parameter Variation in a Population - Gunnar F. Nordberg and Per Strangert
Methods for Measuring the Effects of Chemicals on Aquatic Animals as Indicators of Ecological Damage - Michael Waldichuk
Methods for Measuring the Effects of Chemicals on Terrestrial Animals as Indicators of Ecological Hazard - Stuart Dobson
Methods for Measuring the Effects of Chemicals on Aquatic Plants - D. Calamari, G. Chiaudani and M. Vighi
Measurement of Effects of Environmental and Industrial Chemicals on Terrestrial Plants - T.T. Kozlowski
Extrapolation from Single Species Studies to Populations, Communities and Ecosystems - D.B. Peakall and R.K. Tucker
Evaluation of Tests to Predict Chemical Injury to Ecosystems: Microcosms - John W. Huckabee

Subject Index